Pakistan, Taliban Ties Hurt by Attacks 05/19 06:15
ISLAMABAD (AP) -- Faced with rising violence, Pakistan is taking a tougher
line to pressure Afghanistan's Taliban rulers to crack down on militants hiding
on their soil, but so far the Taliban remain reluctant to take action -- trying
instead to broker a peace.
Last month came a sharp deterioration in relations between the two neighbors
when Pakistan carried out airstrikes in eastern Afghanistan. Witnesses said the
strikes hit a refugee camp and another location, killing at least 40 civilians.
UNICEF said 20 children were believed to be among the dead.
Pakistan never confirmed the April 15 strikes, but two days later its
Foreign Ministry issued a sharp warning to the Taliban not to shelter militants.
The pressure has put the Taliban in a tight corner. The Taliban have long
been close to several militant groups carrying out attacks in Pakistan,
particularly the Pakistani Taliban, a separate organization known by the
acronym TTP. The TTP and other groups have only got more active on Afghan soil
since the Taliban takeover in August.
But the Taliban are wary of cracking down on them, fearful of creating more
enemies at a time when they already face an increasingly violent campaign by
Afghanistan's Islamic State group affiliate, analysts say.
A series of bombings across Afghanistan in recent weeks, mostly targeting
minority Hazaras, has killed dozens. Most are blamed on the Islamic State
affiliate, known by the acronym IS-K. The bloodshed has undermined the
Taliban's claims to be able to provide the security expected of a governing
This week, the Taliban hosted talks between the TTP and a Pakistani
government delegation as well as a group of Pakistani tribal leaders,
apparently hoping for a compromise that can ease the pressure. On Wednesday,
the TTP announced it was extending to May 30 an earlier cease-fire it had
The Taliban government's deputy spokesman Bilal Karimi said it "is trying
its best for the continuation and success of the negotiations and meanwhile
asks both sides to have flexibility."
But past cease-fires with the TTP have failed, and already the current one
was shaken by violence last weekend.
Pakistan's frustration appears to be growing as violence on its soil has
The secessionist Baluchistan Liberation Army killed three Chinese nationals
in late April. The TTP and the Afghan-based IS have targeted Pakistan's
military with increasing regularity.
Militant attacks in Pakistan are up nearly 50% since the Taliban takeover in
Afghanistan, according to the Pakistan Institute of Peace Studies, an
independent think tank based in Islamabad that tracks militant activities. The
group documented 170 attacks between September and mid-May that killed 170
police, military and paramilitary personnel and more than 110 civilians.
The United Nations estimates that as many as 10,000 TTP militants are hiding
in Afghanistan. So far, Afghanistan's rulers have done little to dismantle
militant redoubts on their territory.
Prominent Afghans from southern Afghanistan, who spoke to The Associated
Press on condition of anonymity, said the Pakistani Taliban and Pakistani
Baluch secessionists had established several safe houses in the area during the
previous U.S.-backed government's rule and they have remained since the Taliban
The Pakistani airstrikes in April marked a dramatically tougher stance. They
came after a militant ambush killed seven soldiers near the border with
Afghanistan. Pakistani and Afghani border forces often exchange rocket fire
amid disputes over the frontier -- but it is rare for Pakistan to use warplanes
on targets inside its neighbor.
The change came after weeks of political turmoil in Pakistan that unseated
Imran Khan as prime minister. Khan had been an advocate of negotiations with
militants and had campaigned for the world to engage with the Taliban after
their takeover in Afghanistan.
Michael Kugelman, deputy director of the Asia Program at the U.S.-based
Wilson Center said Khan "had a soft spot for the Taliban as well as a
principled opposition to the use of force in Afghanistan."
With Khan now out of the picture and TTP attacks continuing, "we can expect
a stronger Pakistani readiness to use military operations," he said.
The Afghan Taliban are warning Pakistan against further military action,
The airstrikes "are not acceptable," Taliban-appointed Defense Minister
Mohammad Yaqoob warned Pakistan in late April. "The only reason we have
tolerated this attack is because of our national interest, but it is possible
we will not be so tolerant in the future."
The son of the Taliban founder, Mullah Mohammad Omar, Yaqoob is a powerful
figure in the Taliban leadership, which is struggling to stay united amid
disagreements about how to govern their war-ravaged nation.
The leadership council seems firmly split between two camps: the pragmatists
and hard-liners. Pragmatists have pushed for global engagement and opening of
schools to girls of all ages. The hard-liners want to return Afghanistan to the
late 1990s Taliban rule when women and girls were denied access to most public
spaces and a rigid and unforgiving version of Islam and tribal rule was imposed.
A flurry of repressive edicts of late suggest the hard-liners have the upper
hand, including an order that women wear all-encompassing veils that leave only
the eyes visible and a decision not to allow girls to attend school past the
Yaqoob falls among the pragmatists, according to several prominent Afghans
familiar with the Taliban leadership. Still, there seems no decision among the
leaders on either side of the divide to oust militants on their territory.
"I do not see any quick fix to the Pakistan-Afghan situation. The Taliban
will continue to provide sanctuary to the TTP and hope they can extend their
own influence into Pakistan over time," said Shuja Nawaz, an expert and fellow
at the South Asia Center of the U.S-based Atlantic Council.
"So, expect the situation to deteriorate, especially with the (Pakistan)
military calling the shots on Afghan policy," Nawaz said.